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The water molecules present in active centre of protein molecule are more mobile and participates in ligand binding process gastritis diet евроспорт discount misoprostol express. On the other hand water molecules in the hydration shell stabilizes three dimensional structure of protein by forming water protein hydrogen bond which are not easily removed by dehydration gastritis dogs buy misoprostol with visa. Thus these water molecules are dynamically slow while the ones that are biologically active are relatively fast ones gastritis diet 91303 cheap misoprostol 100mcg visa. Distribution of water in the body Nearly 45 litres of water is present in 70 Kg adult male gastritis symptoms in elderly discount misoprostol uk. Of this 30 litres is found in intra cellular fluids including bone and rest (15 litres) is present in extracellular fluids. Water 629 630 Medical Biochemistry distribution among various extracellular fluids is 8. Since fat is water insoluble, water content of body alters according to fat present in the body. Females have low water percentage (65%) because of relatively high percentage of fat compared to males. The daily water intake and water output of an adult leading sedentary life is given below. Water intake Drinking water Food water Metabolic water mL/day 1200 1000 300 Water output Urine Skin Lungs Fecal water mL/day 1200 900 300 100 Factors affecting water intake and water output 1. Maintenance of water balance Fluid intake (thirst) and urine volume are involved in water balance maintenance. These mechanisms come into action with deficit or excess of 200-300 ml in body water. Therefore total body water in a healthy 70 Kg man varies by no more than 500 ml under normal physiological conditions. It occurs in vomitting, diarrhoea, diabetes incipidus and in lesions of hypothalamus. The inorganic cations are Water, Electrolytes and Acid Base Balance 631 sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+). The organic anions are contributed by proteins, organic acids and organic phosphates. Blood clotting, enzyme catalysis, bone formation and muscle contraction are dependent on electrolytes. Plasma bicarbonate level undergo changes in acid base and electrolyte disturbances. For normal function of body electrolytes concentrations of body fluids must be controlled. Diet, water and salt intake influences the concentration of electrolytes in body fluids. Further, kidney maintain electrolyte balance by excreting salts or by retaining salts depending on diet and environmental condition. Any factor that decreases NaCl or blood pressure stimulates renin release by juxtaglomeruler cells. When released renin acts on angiotensinogen and produce angiotensin-I which is a decapeptide. Electrolyte disturbances Loss of body fluids due to vomiting, diarrhoea, haemorrhage, burns and sunstroke results in electrolyte disturbances. Acid base balance or Hydrogen (H+) Homeostasis the word acid base balance refers to maintenance of stable level of pH of body fluids. Under normal conditions they are neutralized by specific systems involved in maintenance of pH level. Under pathological conditions excessive amounts of acids or bases may accumulate in body fluids and tissues leading to disturbances in acid base balance. Proper pH is required for the optimal action of enzymes and for the transport of molecules within the body and between cells and its surroundings. Proper pH is required for the maintenance of structure of nucleic acids, proteins, coenzymes and various metabolites. Hydrogen (H+) Homeostasis Three different systems are involved in the maintenance of stable blood pH level. By the combined action of these systems constant H+ concentration is maintained in the body. For the good understanding of role of buffer in the regulation of body pH, some physical chemistry of buffer is required. The pH of a buffer system is related to concentration of its weak acid as well as salt or conjugate base of weak acid and pK of weak acid. In logarithmic form the relationship is expressed as Henderson-Hassel balch equation pH = pK + log this equation can be used 1.
If there are five alleles at a locus chronic gastritis months misoprostol 200mcg mastercard, how many genotypes may there be at this locus Examine the results of the following crosses: Parents Cross 1: black and bronze Cross 2: black and black Cross 3: black-bronze and black-bronze Cross 4: black and bronze Cross 5: bronze and black-bronze Cross 6: bronze and bronze 3 Offspring all black /4 black gastritis prevention order misoprostol overnight delivery, 1/4 bronze all black-bronze *24 gastritis mind map generic 100 mcg misoprostol visa. A walnut comb is produced when at least one dominant allele R is present at one locus and at least one dominant allele P is present at a second locus (genotype R P ) gastritis diet фиксики order genuine misoprostol on line. A rose comb is produced when at least one dominant allele is present at the first locus and two recessive alleles are present at the second locus (genotype R pp). A pea comb is produced when two recessive alleles are present at the first locus and at least one dominant allele is present at the second (genotype rr P ). If two recessive alleles are present at the first and at the second locus (rr pp), a single comb is produced. Progeny with what types of combs and in what proportions will result from the following crosses If yes, support your conclusion by assigning symbols to each allele and providing genotypes for all turkeys in the crosses. If your answer is no, provide an alternative explanation and assign genotypes to all turkeys in the crosses. In rabbits, an allelic series helps to determine coat color: C (full color), c ch (chinchilla, gray color), c h (Himalayan, white with black extremities), and c (albino, all-white). The C allele is dominant over all others, c ch is dominant over c h and c, c h is dominant over c, and c is recessive to all the other alleles. Aida found that genes at two loci (B, b and R, r) determine the color of the fish: fish with a dominant allele at both loci (B R ) are brown, fish with a dominant allele at the B locus only (B rr) are blue, fish with a dominant allele at the R locus only (bb R ) are red, and fish with recessive alleles at both loci (bb rr) are white. He then backcrossed the F1 with the homozygous white parent and obtained 228 brown fish, 230 blue fish, 237 red fish, and 222 white fish. Use a chi-square test to compare the observed numbers of backcross progeny with the number expected. What results would you expect for a cross between a homozygous red fish and a white fish What results would you expect if you crossed a homozygous red fish with a homozygous blue fish and then backcrossed the F1 with a homozygous red parental fish In an attempt to produce yellow and brown puppies, he bought a yellow Labrador male and a brown Labrador female and mated them. When a yellow female Labrador retriever was mated with a brown male, half of the puppies were brown and half were yellow. The same female, when mated with a different brown male, produced only brown offspring. A summer-squash plant that produces disc-shaped fruit is crossed with a summer-squash plant that produces long fruit. When the F1 are intercrossed, F2 progeny are produced in the following ratio: 9/16 disc-shaped fruit: 6/16 spherical fruit: 1/16 long fruit. A homozygous variety of pea that has purple flowers is crossed with a homozygous variety that has white flowers. When these F1 are self-fertilized, the F2 appear in a ratio of 9/16 purple to 7/16 white. Draw a hypothetical biochemical pathway to explain the production of purple and white flowers in sweet peas. Bernard is crossed with a Doberman, what will be the coat color of the offspring: solid, yellow, saddle, or bicolor If a Rottweiler is crossed with a Labrador retriever, what will be the coat color of the offspring: solid, yellow, saddle, or bicolor Male-limited precocious puberty results from a rare, sexlimited autosomal allele (P) that is dominant over the allele for normal puberty (p) and is expressed only in males. Bill undergoes precocious puberty, but his brother Jack and his sister Beth underwent puberty at the usual time, between the ages of 10 and 14. In some goats, the presence of horns is produced by an autosomal gene that is dominant in males and recessive in females. In goats, a beard is produced by an autosomal allele that is dominant in males and recessive in females. Another independently assorting autosomal allele that produces a black coat (W) is dominant over the allele for white coat (w). Breitenbecher found that four alleles (R, Rb, Rw, and r) at a single locus determine color. The alleles exhibit a dominance hierarchy, with red (R) dominant over all other alleles, black (Rb) dominant over white (Rw) and tan (r), white dominant over tan, and tan recessive to all others (R > Rb > Rw > r). Color variation in this species is sex-limited to females: males carry color genes but are always tan regardless of their genotype.
The smooth muscle cells are uniform in size and shape with abundant cytoplasm and central oval nuclei chronic gastritis outcome purchase 200 mcg misoprostol with visa. Cellular leiomyoma has preponderance of smooth muscle elements and may superficially resemble leiomyosarcoma but is distinguished from it by the absence of mitoses gastritis diet 7 hari buy discount misoprostol 200 mcg on line. The pathologic appearance may be altered by secondary changes in the leiomyomas; these include: hyaline degeneration gastritis and diet pills purchase misoprostol 200 mcg, cystic degeneration gastritis and celiac diet buy generic misoprostol, infarction, calcification, infection and suppuration, necrosis, fatty change, and rarely, sarcomatous change. G/A the tumour may form a diffuse, bulky, soft and fleshy mass, or a polypoid mass projecting into lumen. Each tube is 7-14 cm long and is divided into 4 parts-interstitial portion in the uterine cornual wall; narrow isthmic portion; wider ampullary region; and funnel-like distal infundibulum. M/E the wall of tube has 4 coats-serous forming the peritoneal covering, subserous consisting of fibrovascular tissue, muscular composed of longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers, and tubal mucosa having 3 types of cells namely: ciliated, columnar and dark intercalated cells. In addition, haematogenous spread may occur, though this route is more important in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Patients generally complain of lower abdominal and pelvic pain which is often bilateral, dysmenorrhoea, menstrual abnormalities and fever with tachycardia. There may be formation of loculated tubo-ovarian abscess involving the tube, ovary, broad ligament and adjacent part of uterus. The process begins with acute salpingitis characterised by oedema and intense acute inflammatory infiltrate of neutrophils involving the tubal mucosa as well as wall. The purulent process may extend to involve tube as well as ovary causing salpingo-oophoritis and forming tubo-ovarian abscess. The escape of purulent exudate into the peritoneal cavity produces pelvic peritonitis and pelvic abscess. Pyosalpinx is distension of the fallopian tube with pus due to occluded fimbrial end. End-result of pyosalpinx after resorption of the purulent exudate is hydrosalpinx in which the tube is thin-walled, dilated and filled with clear watery fluid. Acute salpingitis may resolve with treatment but some cases pass into chronic salpingitis with infiltrate of polymorphs, lymphocytes and plasma cells and fibrosis. The tubercle bacilli reach the tube, most commonly by haematogenous route, generally from the lungs, but occasionally from the urinary tract or abdominal cavity. Tubal tuberculosis is always present when there is tuberculosis of other female genital organs such as of endometrium, cervix and lower genital tract. It affects more commonly young women in their active reproductive life and the most common complaint is infertility. The tubal peritoneum as well as the peritoneum in general is studded with yellowish tubercles. M/E Typical caseating granulomas and chronic inflammation are identified in the tubal serosa, muscularis and mucosa. Though ectopic pregnancy may rarely occur in the uterine horn, cornu, ovary and abdominal cavity, tubal pregnancy is by far the most common form of ectopic gestation. Ectopic tubal pregnancy is a potentially hazardous problem because of rupture which is followed by intraperitoneal haemorrhage. Relatively more common are tumourlike conditions such as hydatids of Morgagni or parovarian cysts which are unilocular, thin-walled cysts hanging from the tubal fimbriae. Rare tumours include adenomatoid tumours, leiomyomas, teratomas, adenocarcinomas and choriocarcinoma all of which are similar in morphology to such tumours elsewhere in the body. M/E the ovarian structure consists of covering by coelomic epithelium, outer cortex and inner medulla. Coelomic epithelium the surface of the ovary is covered by a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells. Cortex During active reproductive life, the cortex is broad and constitutes the predominant component of the ovary. Each follicle consists of a central germ cell ovum surrounded by specialised gonadal stroma. This stroma consists of granulosa cells encircling the ovum, and concentricallyarranged plump spindle-shaped theca cells. Medulla the ovarian medulla is primarily made up of connective tissue fibres, smooth muscle cells and numerous blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves. In addition, the medulla may also contain clusters of hilus cell (or hilar-Leydig cells) which may have androgenic role in contrast to oestrogenic role of the ovarian cortex. Follicular cysts are frequently multiple, filled with clear serous fluid and may attain a diameter upto 8 cm. The wall of these cysts is composed of yellowish luteal tissue (lutein = yellow pigment).
Submucosa and muscular coat show fibrosis and infiltration by chronic inflammatory cells gastritis kako se leci buy cheap misoprostol line. A form of chronic cystitis characterised by formation of lymphoid follicles in the bladder mucosa is termed cystitis follicularis gastritis diet blog purchase misoprostol 200mcg on-line. The etiology of the condition is unknown but it is thought to gastritis diet 3 days misoprostol 200mcg lowest price be neurogenic in origin gastritis diet under 1000 buy 100mcg misoprostol free shipping. The etiology of the condition is unknown but it probably results from persistence of chronic inflammation with defective phagocytic process by the macrophages. G/A the lesions appear as soft, flat, yellowish, slightly raised plaques on the bladder mucosa. M/E the plaques are composed of massive accumulation of foamy macrophages with occasional multinucleate giant cells and some lymphocytes. The infection of urethra often accompanies cystitis in females and prostatitis in males. About 90% of malignant tumours of the lower urinary tract occur in the urinary bladder, 8% in the renal pelvis and remaining 2% are seen in the urethra or ureters. Thus, epithelial tumours are the main tumours, vast majority of which are of transitional cell type (urothelial) tumours. A number of environmental and host factors are associated with increased risk of bladder cancer. Industrial occupations Workers in industries that produce aniline dyes, rubber, plastic, textiles, and cable have high incidence of bladder cancer. Schistosomiasis There is increased risk of bladder cancer, particularly squamous cell carcinoma, in patients having bilharzial infestation (Schistosoma haematobium) of the bladder. Dietary factors Certain carcinogenic metabolites of tryptophan are excreted in urine of patients with bladder cancer. Local lesions Ectopia vesicae (extrophied bladder), vesical diverticulum, leukoplakia of the bladder mucosa and urinary diversion in defunctionalised bladder. Drugs Immunosuppressive therapy with cyclophosphamide and patients having analgesic-abuse (phenacetin-) nephropathy have high risk of developing bladder cancer. Prior irraditation Patients who have received prior irradiation for some other pelvic cancers have higher risk of developing bladder cancer. Multicentric nature of urothelial cancer and high rate of recurrence has led to the hypothesis that a fieldeffect in the urothelium is responsible for this form of cancer. About 90% of the tumours are papillary (non-invasive or invasive), whereas the remaining 10% are flat indurated (non-invasive or invasive). Most common location in the bladder is lateral walls, followed by posterior wall and region of trigone. M/E Most common epithelial tumours of the bladder are urothelial (90%); others are squamous cell, glandular, small cell and mixed. Exophytic papillomas are generally small, less than 2 cm in diameter, having delicate papillae. Papillary urothelial (Transitional cell) carcinoma Histologic criteria for categorising these tumours are based on architecture, cytologic features and invasiveness. Based on these salient features, the characteristics of two grades are as under: Papillary urothelial carcinoma, low grade: these tumours show fused and branching papillary pattern but overall there is an orderly arrangement of layers of cells. These cells are cohesive and show mild variation in polarity, nuclear size, chromatin and shape (round to oval), and inconspicuous small and regular nucleoli. Papillary urothelial carcinoma, high grade: High-grade tumours have increased thickness and have fused and branching papillae which show quite disorderly arrangement. The tumour cells show nuclear enlargement, moderate to marked variation in nuclear size, shape, hyperchromatism, and multiple prominent nucleoli. Invasive urothelial carcinoma Any grade of papillary urothelial carcinoma may show invasion into lamina propria or further into muscularis propria (detrusor). Adenocarcinoma Adenocarcinoma has association with exostrophy of the bladder with glandular metaplasia, or may arise from urachal rests, periurethral and periprostatic glands, or from cystitis cystica. Small cell carcinoma this variant has morphologic resemblance with small cell carcinoma of the lung or other neuroendocrine carcinomas and has a worse outcome. Other less common examples are neurofibroma, haemangioma and granular cell myoblastoma. It exists in 2 forms: Adult form occurring in adults over 40 years of age and resembles the rhabdomyosarcoma of skeletal muscle. Childhood form occurring in infancy and childhood and appears as large polypoid, soft, fleshy, grapelike mass and is also called sarcoma botryoides or embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. It is morphologically characterised by masses of embryonic mesenchyme consisting of masses of highly 462 pleomorphic stellate cells in myxomatous background.
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