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The Assistive Technology Industry Association offers a free Funding Resources Guide diabetes mellitus greek and latin terms purchase metformin 500mg otc, which provides sources and resources to blood sugar conversion purchase metformin 500mg mastercard investigate as prospective options diabetes health magazine discount metformin 500mg without a prescription. Our intent here is not to diabetes insipidus quality of life order metformin now provide an exhaustive review of products and equipment, as that is best done by specialists in individual categories of assistive technology. Rather, we have described the primary categories of assistive devices along with a list of key resources in the last part of each category so the reader can dig deeper when necessary to learn more and find dealers. In this chapter, we provide an overview of: · Environmental Control Units (central switch boxes to run electrical functions) · Computing and Communicating (harnessing the power of the personal computer) · Home Modification (the design elements that make the home or workplace accommodating) · Adaptive Driving (automobiles and the modifications that make them accessible) · Wearables (clothing tailored for people with paralysis) · Service Animals (dogs and monkeys trained to assist people with disabilities) Many of these devices are based on technology that is rapidly changing. To understand the full array of products available, check out tech guides such as AbleNet ( Access Board is a federal agency that promotes equality for people with disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. It enables a person to independently turn on or off any electronics such as lights, heat, air conditioning, stereo, or television; to answer or initiate phone calls; to unlock doors, and to open and close windows or window shades. The interface might be an array of hardwired switches at a doorway, a remote-control joystick mounted on a wheelchair, or a touchscreen tablet with wireless Bluetooth technology. It might operate by voice command, or by "sip and puff," or even by detecting eye blinks, eye direction, or head movements. A new generation of digital assistants are emerging as powerful players in the "smart-home" market for mainstream use. For people living with paralysis, these smart-home devices open up possibilities that go well beyond ordering pizza or playing music ­ at least potentially. Much depends on the types of products and services that can be linked up to the operating systems. Finding the right system, and an installer who will work to individualize the system to meet the specific needs of the individual using it, is critical. Not only does the personal computer open up the global gateway of information, social networking, and remote services via the world wide web, it can also be an empowering tool for communication and home management. Specialized computer software and hardware that help people with paralysis can be high-tech, like voice-recognition and other hands-free technologies, adaptive keyboards, and head-tracking mouse clickers, or relatively low-tech, like screen readers and screen-enlargement applications. The newest adaptation of the portable computer is smartwatches like the Apple Watch and Samsung Gear, which are just what the name implies: smartphones for your wrist, complete with internet access and a range of apps borrowed from phone operating systems. With ever-evolving, hands-free technology, even quads and people with upper-body limitations can operate a computer and navigate the internet using only voice, breath, eye, or head movements. Emerging technologies like brain-machine interfaces, which read nerve signals from the brain and translate them into commands on a device, will open the world of computing to even those with severe paralysis, enabling them to not only communicate but to manage basic aspects of daily life. The array of assistive devices for computing and communicating is vast and changing rapidly. Below we provide an overview of the primary technologies that are commercially available now to help people with paralysis better access the power of the personal computer for communication and everything else. The Resource section at the end provides a list of sources where one can learn more about specific products or systems. A Bluetooth device uses radio waves instead of wires or cables to connect to a phone or computer, making true portability possible. Bluetooth technology allows a wide variety of devices and services to connect to each other wirelessly, silently, and automatically. A Bluetooth product, such as a headset or watch, contains a tiny computer chip embedded with software that essentially acts as a radio tower to send and receive low-power, short-range radio waves. The technology makes it possible to give commands remotely to a computer or phone within a certain distance ­ even through walls. When combined with voice-recognition, eye-tracking, or other hands-free technology, Bluetooth opens a world of possibilities for people living with paralysis. This is, after all, the era of Siri and Google Now, smartphone apps that communicate by recognizing vocal commands and responding with information or specific actions. I use a voice-activated system called Dragon: Naturally Speaking, which works very well for me. For me to move the mouse, which I use pretty extensively, it works through the wheelchair system. I have a little remote control that sits on the roof of my mouth, and I hit little buttons with my tongue. These wireless devices function like two-way speakers, listening to voice commands even from a relative distance and responding accordingly, whether it be to order a pizza or look up something on the internet. They perform as a kind of wireless command-and-control center for the home, and as technology progresses, are being fitted with an ever-increasing array of software interfaces to enable a broad range of uses. Consumer electronics companies are now racing to develop products based on the Alexa operating system, including home appliances, lamps, robots, car infotainment systems, and next-generation smartphones. As technology progresses, individualized interfaces will make it possible to control virtually any electronic device with a simple voice command. Eye-Gaze Technology Eye-gaze technology is designed to track the movement of the eyes by recording and analyzing the position of the pupils. For people with paralysis who are unable to move their arms, eye-gaze technology can be combined with the right software interface to enable use of a computer, phone, home-control unit, or basic communications device. By looking at control keys or specific areas on a screen, a user can generate speech either by "typing" a message one letter at a time or selecting pre-programmed phrases.

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There diabetes insipidus spanish order metformin with a mastercard, he attacked them with a knife diabetes insipidus in dogs life expectancy metformin 500 mg for sale, killing his mother-in-law and severely injuring his fatherin-law diabetic supplies generic metformin 500mg without prescription. Parks then drove to diabetes symptoms of menopause buy metformin 500mg low price a police station and stumbled into the building, holding up his bloody hands and saying, "I think I killed some people. He said that he remembered going to sleep in his bed, then awakening in the police station with bloody hands, but nothing in between. His defense was that he had been asleep during the entire incident and was not aware of his actions (Martin, 2009). However, further investigation established that he did have a long history of sleepwalking, he had no motive for the crime, and despite repeated attempts to trip him up in numerous interviews, he was completely consistent in his story, which also fit the timeline of events. Parks was examined by a team of sleep specialists, who found that the pattern of brain waves that occurred while he slept was very abnormal (Broughton, Billings, Cartwright, & Doucette, 1994). They also agreed that such a combination of stressors was unlikely to happen again, so he was not likely to undergo another such violent episode and was probably not a hazard to others. Given this combination of evidence, the jury acquitted Parks of murder and assault charges. We all know what it means to be conscious, and we assume (although we can never be sure) that other human beings experience their consciousness similarly to how we experience ours. The study of consciousness has long been important to psychologists and plays a role in many important psychological theories. For instance, the French philosopher Renй Descartes (1596­1650) was a proponent of dualism, the idea that the mind, a nonmaterial entity, is separate from (although connected to) the physical body. In contrast to the dualists, psychologists believe that consciousness (and thus the mind) exists in the brain, not separate from it. In fact, psychologists believe that consciousness is the result of the activity of the many neural connections in the brain, and that we experience different states of consciousness depending on what our brain is currently doing (Dennett, 1991; Koch & Greenfield, 2007). Although we may understand and believe that some of our behaviors are caused by forces that are outside our awareness. And yet psychologists are increasingly certain that a great deal of our behavior is caused by processes of which we are unaware and over which we have little or no control (Libet, 1999; Wegner, 2003). And consciousness is fundamental to our sense of morality-we believe that we have the free will to perform moral actions while avoiding immoral behaviors. But in some cases consciousness may become aversive, for instance when we become aware that we are not living up to our own goals or expectations, or when we believe that other people perceive us negatively. If we drink too much coffee or beer, the caffeine or alcohol influences the activity in our brain, and our consciousness may change. When we are anesthetized before an operation or experience a concussion after a knock on the head, we may lose consciousness entirely as a result of changes in brain activity. We also lose consciousness when we sleep, and it is with this altered state of consciousness that we begin our chapter. Draw a graphic showing the usual phases of sleep during a normal night and notate the characteristics of each phase. Outline and explain the similarities and differences among the different theories of dreaming. The lives of all organisms, including humans, are influenced by regularly occurring cycles of behaviors known as biological rhythms. One important biological rhythm is the annual cycle that guides the migration of birds and the hibernation of bears. Women also experience a 28-day cycle that guides their fertility and menstruation. But perhaps the strongest and most important biorhythm is the daily circadian rhythm (from the Latin circa, meaning "about" or "approximately," and dian, meaning "daily") that guides the daily waking and sleeping cycle in many animals. Many biological rhythms are coordinated by changes in the level and duration of ambient light, for instance, as winter turns into summer and as night turns into day. In some animals, such as birds, the pineal gland in the brain is directly sensitive to light and its activation influences behavior, such as mating and annual migrations. In response, the pineal gland secretes melatonin, a powerful hormone that facilitates the onset of sleep. Research Focus: Circadian Rhythms Influence the Use of Stereotypes in Social Judgments the circadian rhythm influences our energy levels such that we have more energy at some times of day than others. Galen Bodenhausen (1990) argued that people may be more likely to rely on their stereotypes. One case involved a student athlete accused of cheating on an exam, one case involved a Hispanic student who allegedly physically attacked his roommate, and a third case involved an African American student who had been accused of selling illegal drugs. Each of these offenses had been judged via pretesting in the same student population to be stereotypically (although, of course, unfairly) associated with each social group.

A number of Group companies are involved in legal proceedings concerning intellectual property rights diabetic vegan purchase metformin with american express. The inherent unpredictability of such proceedings means that there can be no assurances as to managing diabetes 99 purchase metformin with amex their ultimate outcome blood sugar solution recipes order metformin line. A negative result in any such proceeding could potentially adversely affect the ability of certain Novartis companies to diabetes type 1 overweight order generic metformin canada sell their products, or require the payment of substantial damages or royalties. These uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the method and extent of remediation, the percentage of material attributable to the Group at the remediation sites relative to that attributable to other parties, and the financial capabilities of the other potentially responsible parties. Notes 18 and 22 provide additional disclosures related to commitment for repurchase of own shares. F-75 Notes to the Novartis Group consolidated financial statements Derivative financial instruments the following tables show the contract or underlying principal amounts and fair values of derivative financial instruments analyzed by type of contract at December 31, 2019 and 2018. Contract or underlying principal amounts indicate the gross volume of business outstanding at the consolidated balance sheet date and do not represent amounts at risk. The fair values are determined by reference to market prices or standard pricing models that use observable market inputs at December 31, 2019 and 2018. There are three hierarchical levels, based on an increasing amount of subjectivity associated with the inputs to derive fair valuation for these assets and liabilities, which are as follows: the assets carried at Level 1 fair value are equity and debt securities listed in active markets. The assets generally included in Level 2 fair value hierarchy are foreign exchange and interest rate derivatives, and certain debt securities. Foreign exchange and interest rate derivatives are valued using corroborated market data. The liabilities generally included in this fair value hierarchy consist of foreign exchange and interest rate derivatives. The assets generally included in Level 3 fair value hierarchy are various investments in hedge funds and unquoted equity security investments. Realized gains and losses associated with Level 3 long-term financial investments measured at fair value through the consolidated income statement are recorded in the consolidated income statement under "Other income" or "Other expense," respectively. Realized gains and losses associated with Level 3 long-term financial investments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income are not recycled through the consolidated income statement but are instead reclassified to retained earnings. To determine the fair value of a contingent consideration, various unobservable inputs are used. A change in these inputs might result in a significantly higher or lower fair value measurement. The inputs used are, among others, the probability of success, sales forecast and assumptions regarding the discount rate and timing and different scenarios of triggering events. The significance and usage of these inputs to each contingent consideration may vary due to differences in the timing and triggering events for payments or in the nature of the asset related to the contingent consideration. Nature and extent of risks arising from financial instruments Market risk Novartis is exposed to market risk, primarily related to foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates, and the market value of the investments of liquid funds. The Group actively monitors and seeks to reduce, where it deems it appropriate to do so, fluctuations in these exposures. It does not enter into any financial transactions containing a risk that cannot be quantified at the time the transaction is concluded. In addition, it does not sell short assets it does not have, or does not know it will have, in the future. The Group only sells existing assets or enters into transactions and future transactions (in the case of anticipatory hedges) that it confidently expects it will have in the future, based on past experience. In the case of liquid funds, the Group writes call options on assets it has, or writes put options on positions it wants to acquire and has the liquidity to acquire. The Group expects that any loss in value for these instruments generally would be offset by increases in the value of the underlying transactions. Equity securities measured at fair value through other comprehensive income Equity securities held as strategic investments, typically held outside the Novartis Venture Fund, are generally designated at date of acquisition as financial assets valued at fair value through other comprehensive income with no subsequent recycling through profit and loss. As a result, the Group is exposed to foreign currency exchange movements, primarily in European, Japanese and emerging market currencies. This, in turn, may significantly affect the comparability of period-to-period results of operations. Because our expenditures in Swiss francs are significantly higher than our revenues in Swiss francs, volatility in the value of the Swiss franc can have a significant impact on the reported value of our earnings, assets and liabilities, and the timing and extent of such volatility can be difficult to predict. Certain countries have legal or economic restrictions on the ability of subsidiaries to transfer funds to the Group in the form of cash dividends, loans or advances, but these restrictions do not have an impact on the ability of the Group to meet its cash obligations. The most significant countries in this respect are Argentina and Venezuela, where the governments have F-79 Notes to the Novartis Group consolidated financial statements implemented capital controls. The net outstanding intercompany payable balance of Argentina and Venezuela Subsidiaries were not material for the Group at December 31, 2019 and at December 31, 2018.

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But a more compelling reason is that in the opinion of the Tribunal the General Staff and High Command is neither an "organization" nor a "group" within the meaning of those terms as used in Article 9 of the Charter diabetes presenting signs buy metformin 500mg on-line. According to diabetes symptoms feet buy cheap metformin 500 mg the Indictment and evidence before the Tribunal diabetes type 1 stem cell treatment safe metformin 500 mg, it consists of approximately 130 officers diabetes medications natural purchase metformin 500mg, living and dead, who at any time during the period from February 1938, when Hitler reorganized the Armed Forces, and May 1945, when Germany surrendered, held certain positions in the military hierarchy. In the larger sense they coordinated and directed the three services, with particular emphasis on the functions of planning and operations. This is the meaning of the Indictment in its use of the term "General-Staff and High Command". The Prosecution does not indict the next level of the military hierarchy consisting of commanders of army corps, and equivalent ranks in the Navy and Air Force, nor the level below, the division commanders or their equivalent in the other branches. In effect, then, those indicted as members are military leaders of the Reich of the highest rank. No serious effort was made to assert that they composed an "organization" in the sense of Article 9. The assertion is rather that they were a "group", which is a wider and more embracing term than "organization. According to the evidence, their planning at staff level, the constant conferences between staff officers and field commanders, their operational technique in the field and at headquarters was much the same as that of the armies, navies, and air forces of all other countries. To derive from this pattern of their activities the existence of a n association or group does not, in the opinion of the Tribunal, logically follow. On such a theory the top commanders of every other nation are just such a n association rather than what they actually are, a n aggregation of military men, a number of individuals who happen a t a given period of time to hold the highranking military positions. Much of the evidence and the argument has centered around the question of whether membership in these organizations was o r was not voluntary; in this case, it seems to the Tribunal to be quite beside the point. For this alleged criminal organization has one characteristic, a controlling one, which sharply distinguishes it from the other five indicted. In the case of the General Staff and High Command, however, h e could not know he was-joining a group o r organization for such organization did not exist except in the charge of the Indictment. He knew only that he had achieved a certain high rank in one of the three services, and could not be conscious of the fact that he was becoming a member of anything so tangible as a "group", a s that word is commonly used. The Tribunal therefore does not declare the General Staff and High Command to be a criminal organization. Although the Tribunal is of the opinion that the term "group" in Article 9 must mean something more than this collection of military officers, it has heard much evidence as to the participation of the officers in planning and waging aggressive war, and in committing War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity. They have been responsible in large measure for the miseries and suffering that have fallen on millions of men, women, and children. Without their military guidance the aggressive ambitions of Hitler and his fellow Nazis would have been academic and sterile. Although they were not a group falling within the words of the Charter, they were certainly a ruthless military caste. The contemporary German militarism flqurished briefly with its recent ally, National Socialism, as well as or better than i t had in the generations of the past. The truth is they actively participated in all these crimes, or sat silent and acquiescent, witnessing the commission of crimes on a scale larger and more shocking than the world has ever had the misfortune to know. Where the facts warrant it, these men should be brought to trial so that those among them who are guilty of these crimes should not escape punishment. Article 26 of the Charter provides that the Judgment of the Tribunal as to the guilt or innocence of any Defendant shall give the reasons on which it is based. The Tribunal will now state those reasons in declaring its Judgment on such guilt or innocence. The evidence shows that after Hitler he was the most prominent man in the Nazi regime. He was Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe, Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan, and had tremendous influence with Hitler, at least until 1943 when their relationship deteriorated, ending in his arrest in 1945. He testified that Hitler,kept him informed of all important military and political problems. He developed the Gestapo, and created the first concentration camps, relinquishing them to Himmler in 1934, conducted the Rohm purge in that year, and engineered the sordid proceedings which resulted in the removal of Von Blomberg and Von Fritsch from the Army. In 1936 he became Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan, and in theory and in practice was the economic dictator of the Reich. Shortly after the Pact of Munich, he announced that he would embark on a five-fold expansion of the Luftwaffe, and speed rearmament with emphasis on offensive weapons. GiJring was one of the five important leaders present at the Hossbach Conference of 5 November 1937, and he attended the other important conferences already discussed in this Judgment. I even overruled objections by the Fiihrer and brought everything to its final development. The night before the invasion of Czechoslovakia and the absorption of Bohemia and Moravia, at a conference with Hitler and President Hacha he threatened to bomb Prague if Hacha did not submit. Goring attended the Reich Chancellery meeting of 23 May 1939 when Hitler told his military leaders "there is, therefore, no question of sparing Poland," and was present at the Obersalzberg briefing of 22 August 1939. He commanded the Luftwaffe in the attack on Poland and throughout the aggressive wars which followed. He made it clear i n his testimony that these differences were never ideological or legal.

References:

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